The most obvious use for backgrounds in M.U.G.E.N is for what you see behind characters during a fight (referred to as a "stage background"). In addition, backgrounds are used almost everywhere else in M.U.G.E.N, from what you see on the title screen, to the versus screen display, storyboard cutscenes and more. These are called "system backgrounds."
Stage backgrounds are the backgrounds in stage data files, such as stages/kfm.def. System backgrounds are found in data/system.def. In this tutorial, we are going to cover how to make a stage background, and we will see how to apply the same procedure to making a system background.
What you need to know
This document assumes that you are already familiar with how to create SFF files. To make animated backgrounds, you need know about AIR files. You can go through the first couple of our character tutorials to pick up the basics.
What makes a background?
A background in M.U.G.E.N consists of the following elements:
One or more background sprites, drawn from back to front, with or without masking, and with or without parallax effects
Specifications of how those sprites should move in relation to the camera
Animation data for background animations
Specifications of the width and height of the playing field
Specification of the "ground level" for the stage
More miscellaneous settings
Background controller definitions for more advanced effects.
The first thing to decide is the coordinate space you want to use for the background. This affects the resolution of the sprites you need to make. Set the localcoord parameter in the [StageInfo] group to one of "320,240", "640,480", "1280,720" or "1920,1080".
The simplest kind of stage will simply have a single element in the background. An element is usually a sprite or animation. Here we'll start by putting sprite into the stage. Suppose you have a single image file which you want to use as a background picture. Create a file named stage1.sff in the stages/ directory, with this image as sprite 0,0. Place the axis on the center of the bottom edge of the image. Now copy data/stage0.def to data/stage1.def and open stage1.def up in a text editor.
In the [Info] group, you can customize the name of the stage. Stage names should be enclosed in double quotes.
To get the stage up and running as quickly as possible, simply go to the [BGDef] group. Change the spr parameter to point to stage1.sff, and set debugbg to 1. Now go to the [BG 0] group. Make sure the type parameter is set to normal (since this is not a parallaxing background element). Make sure the spriteno parameter is set to 0,0. Set the layerno to 0 to prevent the background from being drawn in front of the characters. Finally, set the start parameter to the desired starting location of the background. The coordinates are measured from the center of the bottom edge of the screen. If you placed the axis for sprite 0,0 in the bottom center as suggested, then you can just set start = 0, 0.
There are other parameters that can be set for this BG element. The comments you see in stage1.def give a description of the parameters' functions. Here are the ones you will commonly use:
delta = xdelta, ydelta
xdelta and ydelta are scaling factors: for each pixel the camera moves horizontally, the background element will move xdelta pixels, etc. If you only have a single background image, you will generally want to set delta to 1, 1. Using smaller deltas for the rear background elements can create the illusion of depth when you have multiple elements.
trans = none, add, add1 or sub
Controls the transparency of the background element.
mask = 0 or 1
If you have multiple elements, set mask = 1 on the foreground elements to prevent drawing color 0 for them. If masking is not necessary, then make sure to set mask = 0.
tile = x, y
tilespacing = x, y
window = x1, y1, x2, y2
Unless you are using a small image which you want to tile to fill up the whole background, you should set tile to 0,0.
Your [BG 0] section will look similar to the following (shown without comments):
type = normal
spriteno = 0, 0
layerno = 0
start = 0, 185
delta = 1, 1
trans = none
mask = 0
velocity = 0, 0
tile = 0, 0
tilespacing = 0, 0
window = 0,0, 319, 239
Finally, delete or comment out the [BG 1] block, since we don't have any other background elements.
Setting up stage parameters
Now it's time to test your stage:
mugen kfm kfm -s stage1
Try walking and jumping around. Depending on the dimensions of sprite 0,0, you may not be able to see all of the background, or you may end up scrolling past the edge of the background and seeing a solid magenta color (the result of setting debugbg = 1). To fix this problem, and to further customize the stage, you can adjust the parameters listed below.
In the [Camera] group, the boundleft and boundright parameters control how far the camera can scroll left and right from its initial starting position. You should adjust these so that the camera cannot scroll past the edge of the background. For instance, if your background image is 1000 pixels wide and the camera view is 640 pixels wide, then you should set boundleft to -180 and boundright to 180.
Similarly, the boundhigh and boundlow parameters control how far the camera can scroll vertically. boundlow should be kept at 0 in most circumstances. If your background image is 750 pixels high and the screen is 480 pixels tall, then boundhigh should be set to -290.
You can leave the verticalfollow, floortension, and tension parameters alone for now. These are used to tweak camera behavior according to the comments in stage0.def.
The [PlayerInfo] and [Scaling] groups can also be left alone for now.
The [Bound] group contains the parameters screenleft and screenright, which control how much a character can protrude off the edge of the screen. These parameters are typically set to about 15.
The [StageInfo] group contains the zoffset, autoturn, and resetBG parameters. zoffset determines the ground level of the stage. It is measured in pixels from the top of the screen when the camera is in its starting position. You should adjust this value to make sure the players actually stand on the ground level of your image. The autoturn parameter makes players turn around to face each other if necessary, and should be left at 1. The resetBG parameter, if set to 1, resets stage animations and background controllers to their initial states. Since we won't be using animations or background controllers in this example, you can leave resetBG alone.
The [Shadow] group determines how player shadows are displayed on the stage. Player shadows are just vertically scaled copies of the player sprites. The yscale parameter controls the scaling factor (where 1 means no scaling). The intensity parameter can be set like this: intensity = I where I is the darkness of the shadow (ranging between 0 and 256). The higher the number, the darker the shadow.
The [Reflection] group lets you control show shiny the floor looks. The intensity parameter is how visible the reflection is (ranging from 0 to 256). The higher the number, the greater the reflection.
Once your BG is working, be sure to turn debugbg back off.
Adding more elements
To add another background element, simply copy and paste the [BG 0] group, rename the group appropriately, then set up the parameters for the new element. Remember to keep in mind that elements are drawn from back to front in the order that they appear in the background file.
The following example has two elements, BG Sky and BG Floor. BG Sky is drawn behind BG Floor and has a smaller delta value to make it appear as if it is far away.
type = normal
spriteno = 0, 0
start = 0, 185
delta = .25, .25
type = normal
spriteno = 1, 0
start = 0, 185
delta = 1, 1
Animated background elements have a syntax similar to normal ones. The "type" parameter is "anim" instead of "normal", and you use the "actionno" parameter instead of the "spriteno" parameter. Animated BGs are always masked (meaning that color 0 of the sprites is the transparent color), and must have the animation action in the same file.
type = Anim
actionno = 10 ;This number here...
start = 50, 0
delta = 1, 1
[Begin Action 10] ;should be the same as this number here
10,0, 0,0, 5
10,1, 0,0, 5
10,2, 0,0, 5
A parallax BG elements can be used to create a 3-dimensional effect. The basic workings of a parallax element is similar to that of a normal (sprite) element, except that a parallax element has the added ability to skew horizontally as the camera moves.
To imagine how it works, we'll take the example of a flat floor sprite. Imagine that as the camera moves left slowly, the top part of the floor scrolls right on the screen at the same pace (delta=1). Now let's say the bottom part of the floor scrolls along at double the speed (delta=2), skewing the floor sprite as it moves. This creates a 3D-looking effect, using 2D sprites!
Here's a clip out of stages/kfm.def (KFM's sample stage in M.U.G.E.N)
[BG Parallax Floor]
type = parallax
spriteno = 10,0
start = 0, 181
delta = .78, .75
xscale = 1, 1.75
yscalestart = 100
yscaledelta = 1.2
As you notice, the "type" parameter is set to "parallax". Most other paremters are the same as normal BG elements (except you can't use the "trans" parameter). The line that makes parallax work is the "xscale" parameter. These numbers scale the x-delta value at the top and at the bottom of the sprite respectively. So for "xscale = 1, 1.75", it means that the top part of the sprite moves at .78*1 = .78 pixels/camera unit. The bottom part of the sprite moves at .78*1.75 = 1.365 pixels/camera unit.
There are two optional parameters: "yscalestart" and "yscaledelta". These create the vertical portion of the 3D illusion. yscalestart is a percentage that represents the starting vertical scale factor when the camera's y-position (call it camera-y) is at ground-level. yscaledelta is the amount to add to the scale factor for every camera unit the camera moves up. In the example above, if the camera moves up by one unit, the scale factor will 101.2%, and if it moves up another unit, the scale will be 102.4% and so on. You can try various values of yscalestart and yscaledelta in kfm.def to see the effect.
When designing the sprite for a parallax element, you generally want to keep the perspective such that projected width at the top and bottom of the sprite correspond to the ratio of the two values in the "xscale" parameter. As an example, you can take a look at work/stages/kfm/floor0.pcx (all of KFM's stage work files are in work/stages/kfm/).
System backgrounds are simply stage backgrounds without any delta values (the camera is assumed to be in a fixed position). That's all there is to it! data/system.def has several backgrounds that can be changed. It's good to play with these to get familiar with how backgrounds work.
Where to go from here
Be sure to read up Background / Stage docs for the full documentation on backgrounds. There are many additional parameters you can use to make your stages and backgrounds look better. Learn to use background controllers to make more complex animations. What you learn about backgrounds can be applied to storyboards as well.